Age of the Grand Canyon Everyone has heard about the great ages claimed by proponents of evolution, this is particularly true of Grand Canyon. The question is, do radioactive isotope dating methods provide convincing scientific evidence for billion-year old rocks? Two lava-flow formations occur in the Grand Canyon: In a recent study, these formations were both selected for radioactive isotope dating by the rubidium-strontium isochron technique. The deeply buried Cardenas Basalt occurs among the oldest strata of the Grand Canyon. This basalt has been assigned to the Precambrian strata of the Unkar Group, which contains the lowest, and hence the oldest strata of the Grand Canyon. Some geologists that ascribe to the theory of evolution have suggested an “age” of more than one billion years.
PSRD: Age Rules
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.
We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.
Jeffrey Taylor Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Photogeologic and remote sensing studies of the Moon show that many light-colored, smooth areas in the highlands contain craters surrounded by dark piles of excavated debris. The dark deposits resemble the dark basalts that make up the lunar maria. They contain the same diagnostic minerals especially high-calcium pyroxene and chemical compositions high iron oxide as do mare basalts.
The deposits formed when vast amounts of material ejected during the formation of giant impact basins covered pre-existing lava plains. Since the smooth plains are older than the youngest impact basin about 3. In fact, they were visible maria for a while eons ago, but were buried by ejecta when the basins formed. We have samples of these ancient mare basalts. They reside in breccias collected from the lunar highlands. Age dating indicates that the chips have ages of 3. The oldest dated mare basalt in the Apollo collection is 4.
The team dated this very low-titanium mare basalt by using an ion microprobe to measure the isotopic composition of lead and uranium in phosphate minerals. They found that the basalt fragments in the rock have an age of about 4. This overlaps with the ages of chemically-distinct igneous rocks from the highlands, indicating that diverse magmas were being produced early in the history of the Moon.
In traditional ancient folklore, nettles of various types were often regarded as having magical powers. They were seen as being able to protect both humans and animals from sorcery and witchcraft. So far no evidence of any extensive patterns or coloured dyes have been found on any of the linen and nettle yarn textile fragments — although the edge of one piece of fabric perhaps part of a shawl or cape seems to have been decorated with fringes, rows of knots, and strips featuring different styles of weave.
Certainly, dying the linen would have presented substantial technical difficulties — but bleaching it would have been much less challenging.
Before the Ice Age that began about 35, years ago, there had been about 95, years (95, years is approximately one long Milankovitch cycle of variation of eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit) of mild climate since the end of the preceding Ice Age about , years ago.
Sometimes different methods used on the same rock produce different ages. Furthermore, the same method can produce different ages on different parts of the same rock. Sometimes these are close but other times they are very different. Isotopic Fractionation Isotopic Fractionation is a physical separation of isotopes and a non-radioactive source of isotope ratios. It can be caused by heating and cooling, water flow, contact between high and low concentration magma and just normal molecular motion.
Evidence for Isotopic Fractionation does show up in isotopic data so it is a factor that needs to be considered. Water flow through rocks is important because all parent substances and many daughter substances are water soluble. This is particularly important in light of the Biblical flood. Formation of sample How a rock is formed is important to understanding its isotopic make-up and any dates derived. The isotopic make-up of original material is important, as is mixing of magma with surrounding material.
The conditions of formation are also important, because both the cooling rate and the opportunities for mixing affect isotope ratios.
Age of the Grand Canyon
Basalt commonly features a very fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains. The average density is 3. Basalt is defined by its mineral content and texture , and physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances. Basalt is usually grey to black in colour, but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic iron-rich minerals into hematite and other iron oxides and hydroxides.
Although usually characterized as “dark”, basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes.
The Little Ice Age on James Ross Island resulted in the advance of polythermal glaciers and the formation of large ice-cored moraines with a thin sediment cover.
Slowly and painstakingly, geologists have assembled this record into the generalized geologic time scale shown in Figure 1. This was done by observing the relative age sequence of rock units in a given area and determining, from stratigraphic relations, which rock units are younger, which are older, and what assemblages of fossils are contained in each unit. Using fossils to correlate from area to area, geologists have been able to work out a relative worldwide order of rock formations and to divide the rock record and geologic time into the eras, periods, and epochs shown in Figure 1.
The last modification to the geologic time scale of Figure 1 was in the s, before radiometric dating was fully developed, when the Oligocene Epoch was inserted between the Eocene and the Miocene. Although early stratigraphers could determine the relative order of rock units and fossils, they could only estimate the lengths of time involved by observing the rates of present geologic processes and comparing the rocks produced by those processes with those preserved in the stratigraphic record. With the development of modern radiometric dating methods in the late s and s, it was possible for the first time not only to measure the lengths of the eras, periods, and epochs but also to check the relative order of these geologic time units.
Radiometric dating verified that the relative time scale determined by stratigraphers and paleontologists Figure 1 is absolutely correct, a result that could only have been obtained if both the relative time scale and radiometric dating methods were correct. Nonetheless, stratigraphy and radiometric dating of Precambrian rocks have clearly demonstrated that the history of the Earth extends billions of years into the past.
Evolutionists generally feel secure even in the face of compelling creationist arguments today because of their utter confidence in the geological time scale. Even if they cannot provide a naturalistic mechanism, they appeal to the “fact of evolution,” by which they mean an interpretation of earth history with a succession of different types of plants and animals in a drama spanning hundreds of millions of years. The Bible, by contrast, paints a radically different picture of our planet’s history.
In particular, it describes a time when God catastrophically destroyed the earth and essentially all its life. The only consistent way to interpret the geological record in light of this event is to understand that fossil-bearing rocks are the result of a massive global Flood that occurred only a few thousand years ago and lasted but a year. This Biblical interpretation of the rock record implies that the animals and plants preserved as fossils were all contemporaries.
Dating: Dating, in geology, determining a chronology or calendar of events in the history of Earth, using to a large degree the evidence of organic evolution in the sedimentary rocks accumulated through geologic time in marine and continental environments. To date past events, processes, formations, and.
Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages.
Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb. There is also primordial Pb that the earth acquired when it formed, its isotopic composition determined as that of troilite in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. Subsequently new crustal rocks formed via partial melts from the mantle. So the Pb isotope ratios measured in these rocks today must be interpreted before their U-Pb ages can be calculated.
Various methods have been devised to determine this initial or common Pb, but all involve making unprovable assumptions. Zircon does incorporate initial Pb when it crystallizes.
Thus we do not know the numeric age of any given layer. The civilizations that deposited the trash had a culture and industrial capabilities that evolved through time. The oldest inhabitants used primitive stone tools, later inhabitants used cups made of ceramics, even later inhabitants eventually used tin cans and then changed to Aluminum cans, and then they developed a technology that used computers.
This shows that society has evolved over the years.
Discovery and Characteristics. The Venus of Berekhat Ram was found by archeologist N. Goren-Inbar (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) during archeological excavations on the Golan Heights between Syria and Israel during the summer of
List of places with columnar basalt During the cooling of a thick lava flow, contractional joints or fractures form. While a flow can shrink in the vertical dimension without fracturing, it can’t easily accommodate shrinking in the horizontal direction unless cracks form; the extensive fracture network that develops results in the formation of columns. The topology of the lateral shapes of these columns can broadly be classed as a random cellular network. These structures are predominantly hexagonal in cross-section, but polygons with three to twelve or more sides can be observed.
Submarine eruptions Pillow basalts on the south Pacific seafloor Outcrop of a pillow basalt, Italy Pillow basalts Main article: Pillow lava When basalt erupts underwater or flows into the sea, contact with the water quenches the surface and the lava forms a distinctive pillow shape, through which the hot lava breaks to form another pillow.